First emperor of china tomb excavation
The cemetery is divided into two parts: inner city and outer city. There are more than 400 tombs, and a wide range of 56.25 square kilometers. There are more than 400 tombs in the mausoleum.
In 1962, the first comprehensive archaeological survey of the Qin Shihuang cemetery, archaeologists painted the first plan of the cemetery layout, the detection, cemetery range of 56.25 square kilometers, equivalent to nearly 78 Forbidden City, causing archaeological community sensation.
January 29, 1974, Qin Shi Huang Ling Terracotta Warriors and Horses found.
In July 1974, Qin Shihuang cemetery of the first archaeological team stationed in the site.
At the beginning of 1980, the south wall of the palace was unearthed. From 1979 to 1982, the fiefs on the west side and the north side of the tomb and the east side of the five tomb were found.
In 1980, the archaeologists in the Qin Shi Huang emperor mausoleum on the west side of about 20 meters of a buried pit, unearthed unearthed two large painted copper car horse, this group of painted bronze car horse car and car, is the 20th century archaeological history found The most complex structure, the largest body of ancient bronze. One of the copper car for the two wheels, single house, Sima Department of driving, the total weight of about 1.061 tons. The second car through 317 cm long, 106 cm high, the total weight of 1.241 tons 37 (). It reproduces the Qin Shi Huang bronze car Lu Lu driving a patrol of the true face, known as the "bronze crown."
Between 1996 and 1997, a large-scale burial pits of 13,000 square meters were found in the southeastern part of the inner and outer cities.
July 1998 on the newly discovered large-scale buried pits were excavated, unearthed a large number of bluestone armor, causing a strong response from all walks of life. In October, by the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archeology and Qin Shi Huang Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum to form a joint archaeological team, the cemetery began a planned archaeological excavation protection and comprehensive exploration work.
Unearthed cultural relics
K9801 buried in 1998 to explore the excavation, located in the southeast of the Qin Shi emperor cemetery between the inside and outside the city, about 200 meters from the present seal, the plane is rectangular, the main part of things 130 meters long, 100 meters wide north and south, north and south sides of the east and west sides of the There is a ramp doorway. Together with the four slopes of the doorway, the total area of the pit of more than 13,000 square meters, is so far the emperor of the emperor cemetery within the city found the largest area of the buried pit. In the excavation side unearthed a large number of dense stacking, with flat copper wire chain of stone armor and stone helmet, of which stone collar about 87 collar, stone about 43 top.
According to archaeological experts, the production of stone armor should be combined with the then jade processing technology: the opening of the stone and the production of a film of the rough; fine grinding of the basic formation of the film body; drilling and polishing; Through the experiment, the manual processing of an average of 600 pieces of armor, to work 8 hours per person per day, the need for hours 344-444 days, that is, the production of a clothing, need a year.
In this huge pit, it is estimated that there are thousands of pieces of stone armor, helmets, as well as the No. 2 pit has been unearthed horse reins, bronze car body parts, bronze, arrows and other military equipment heritage, so the experts That the funeral pit, it should be called the Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses Miyagi military arsenal.
Buried with the pit unearthed armor, mainly composed of two before and after the composition, the former armor, the back of the back, and some also have a shoulder care armor. According to the archaeologists, skirts not only the use of small pieces, and the gap between the film and the film is also much larger than the body. This unique ingenuity of the special design, so that the skirt up and down more flexible, so that the brave wearing armor march combat unrestrained.
The top of the stone helmet to the side of the side of the length of about 30 cm, straight to the shoulder, the neck and shoulder played a better protective effect, so that the whole helmet is more perfect. A suit and helmet design, fully explain the Qin Dynasty China's military uniform design has been very advanced, not only focus on the appearance of the United States, pay more attention to the needs of actual combat.
Archaeological experts according to the unearthed armor neatly stacked situation to judge: Qin Jun's management is very strict, not only the ranks of neatly arranged, and the material is also highly centralized and unified, orderly.
From the unearthed cultural relics, terracotta warriors and horses of the texture and the texture of the armor is completely different, apparently armor stone processing technology, than the terracotta warriors and horses of the burning process to be much more sophisticated. Archaeologists thus inferred, when the Qin has a strict level and treatment distinction.
Ancient Chinese armor in the Shang Dynasty, the Western Zhou Dynasty, the Spring and Autumn Period mainly leather as raw material.
In addition to armor, helmet, archaeological staff also found in the horses on the horse and the horse and the horse equipped with bronze parts and so on. These signs indicate that the K9801 is similar to a large "arsenal" function.
Terracotta Warriors and Horses
Terracotta Warriors and Horses pit is the tomb of Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, located in the east side of the cemetery 1500 meters. In the spring of 1974, farmers were found by local wells. Which buried in the ground more than two thousand years of the treasure to be available, known as "the world's eighth miracle." For the study of the Qin Dynasty military, political, economic, cultural, scientific and technological, etc., provides a very valuable physical information, the world's human culture as a valuable asset. Terracotta Warriors and Horses have been excavated 3, figurines pit sitting west to east, was "goods" shaped arrangement, the pit has pottery figurines, more than 8000 pieces of Tao Ma, there are more than 40,000 pieces of bronze weapons.
Pit pottery art works are imitation of the Qin Weiwei. Nearly ten thousand or hand-armed bow, arrow, crossbow, or hand-held bronze Ge, spear, halberd, or negative crossbow precursor, or royal caravan pottery guards, respectively, composed of steps, crossbow, car, riding four arms.
All the guards in the underground tunnels are placed in the east. According to the drilling that a total of three buried pit, which found in 1974, the largest pit, it is 230 meters long, 62 meters wide north and south, about 5 meters deep, corridors and 11 holes formed the entire pit, and the real The same size of the horse, arranged in the square of more than 6,000 warrior figurines and towels of the pottery was placed in the pit. About 20 meters northeast of Pit No.1 is the second pit found in the spring of 1976, and it is another spectacular array of soldiers. North and south 84 meters wide, 96 meters long from east to west, with an area of 9216 square meters, construction area of 17016 square meters. There are more arms in the No. 2 pitnel, including infantry, rider, cavalry and crossbowmen. No.2 pit west of the third pit, October 1, 1989 began to allow visitors to visit. North-south width of 24.5 meters, 28.8 meters long from east to west area of the pit area of more than 500 square meters. No. 3 pit by the experts infer that is considered to command the first and second pit of the military screen. A chariot, 68 guardian figurines and weapons are kept in the pit.
Since 1974, in the cemetery east 1.5 km from the burial figurines and horses found three, finished glyphs arranged, an area of more than 20,000 square meters, unearthed pottery figurines 8000, chariot 100 and tens of thousands of physical weapons and other cultural relics The One pit for the "right army", buried and real people with the big pottery figurines, Tao Ma about 6 thousand; two pit for the "left army", pottery figurines, pottery more than 1,300 pieces, chariot 89, is a by the infantry, cavalry, chariot and other three arms mixed group of music array, but also the essence of the figurine figurine pit; No. 3 peculiar warrior figurines 68, a chariot, pottery horse 4, is Commander of the underground army command. This army is the epitome of the Qin army formation.
Qin Shi Huang Ming is essentially according to the ancient ritual system "things like life" requirements specially designed. Because the emperor before the throne, with most of the energy and time to unify the national war. At that time he led a mighty army south of the war, which annexed the six countries, unified the world. In order to show his meritorious service, in the form of the army to bury seems to be a necessity.
The latest discovery
In November 2016, in the latest drilling work on the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, the discovery of a large number of buried pit, some of which buried the pit area even up to thousands of square meters.
Prior to the Qin Shi Huang cemetery were found in large and small buried pit more than 400 seats, the drilling of the new discovery of dozens of small tombs and buried pit. In the excavation of the buried pit, the basic to pottery-based, in the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum area outside the archaeological staff also found a lot of armor, helmet, etc., and are stone.
According to archaeologists speculated that these weapons should not be used in actual combat, because the stone is not only heavy and very brittle, with such equipment to fight the enemy, armor is easy to brittle, its real role remains to be further studied.