What is China?

The world is no China, the Chinese people to create China

What is China?
The Planet Institute

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65 million years ago, the
Indian plate and the Asia-Europe plate began to hit the
Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift
gradually rose to more than 4000 meters
(the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift time is still academic controversy; from the space captured the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, you can see the white Himalayan and khaki Of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau prominent prominence on the surface, much higher than the southern Ganges River; picture from @NASA)

Such a high elevation
of the Eurasian continent in the eastern part of the atmospheric circulation of a major change in the
prevailing westerly circulation and dry and cold winter monsoon
by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau blocked a
large number of concentrated in the northwest inland
south of the Indian Ocean summer monsoon carrying huge water surging north
hit the towering Himalayas
had stagnated in the south of the mountains
(affecting Tibet Plateau on Asian atmospheric circulation is more complex, the Department only for simple schematic; white arrow westerly circulation, the red arrow to the Indian Ocean summer monsoon, planet Institute produced, basemap from @MapsForFree)

Winter dry air flow gather
summer warm and humid air flow and not its door into
Xinjiang from Inner Mongolia, from Gansu to Ningxia,
China's northwest have become more arid
desert everywhere, Gobi aspect
(Xinjiang Shanshan Kuquta desert, photographer @ Liu Chen)

The vast expanse of sand
and the strong northwest wind rolled up
in the eastern part of Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi Province
, the accumulation of millions of years after the
average thickness of 50-80 meters of the Loess Plateau was born
(Ningxia Pengyang County loess landform, photographer @ Lin Shengku)

In contrast
the eastern part of China will benefit a lot
after the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift
East Asian monsoon has been greatly strengthened
every summer it coerced a large number of water vapor
troops on the west, north, into the Chinese hinterland
(white arrow westerly circulation, red arrow East Asian summer monsoon, Planet Research, basemap from @MapsForFree)

The eastern part of the Yangtze River
, especially in the south of the Yangtze River , has become more warm and humid, and the
so-called soot is formed in the south of the Yangtze River
(the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a significant differentiation on the eastern part of China, and the south has become more humid, but the North China is more affected by the winter monsoon. For the dry and cold, the overall trend of arid emergence; Hangzhou Long dock tea; photographer @ Pan Jin grass)

Alpine Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the arid northwest
and the relatively warm and humid eastern monsoon region
is the three regions
together constitute China's basic natural geographical pattern
(China's three major natural area map)

This is a vast expanse of land in a
variety of topography and geography
(3D version of China and the surrounding topographic map, map @ Annt Balazh / 123RF)

From the land
(Xinjiang Kashi red layer of landform, photographer @ Zhao Laiqing)

To the sea
(in 2016 in the South China Sea proven three sand Yongle Long hole, the hole diameter of 130 meters, the depth of more than 300 meters, is currently known the deepest blue hole; from the sea to see the blue hole with the surrounding waters show different dark blue , Above the detection equipment; photographer @ Luo Yunfei)

From the mountains
(Everest, photographer @OLEG ARTEMYEV)

To the trough
(Xinjiang Dushanzi Grand Canyon, the water washed out of the numerous gully, from the air overlooking actually constitute a "tree"; photographer @ knife brother)

From the volcano
(Chahar volcano, photographer @ Liu Chen)

To the glacier
(the junction of Tibet's Teden Nima glacier and the ice lake, photographer @ Li Heng)

From the fine stream
(Inner Mongolia Hulun Buir Mo Gregory River in a small island, shaped like Dan Fengyan, photographer @ Zhongyong Jun)

To the river
(the upper reaches of the Yangtze River Tuotuo River, Qinghai-Tibet Railway Bridge like a comb, gently across the mother's hair; photographer @ Jiang Xi)

From the desert
(Tibet Shannan desert, photographer @ Li Heng)

To the lake
(the first one for the Inner Mongolia Zhalantun Chaihe town moon Tianchi, photographer @ Zhongyong Jun; the first two for the Lugu Lake, because of the high transparency of the water, the view of God, underwater plants, Wenjun)

Coupled with the longitude, latitude span is very wide range
of Chinese animal and plant species are also quite rich
in plants, for example, the world's 225,000 species of plants which
accounted for 30,000 of
the northern hemisphere plant species one of the most abundant areas
(the last glacial period, North America and many parts of Europe are covered by ice sheet, the survival of the species in China is escaped, as China's species rich in resources for another reason; the picture shows the Anhui Qinglong Bay of Taxodium, here for the introduction of species, photographers @ Jiang Lingxiang)

8,000 years ago in eastern China
has also been widely distributed with crocodiles, rhinoceros, Asian elephants and other large animals
if you can pass through time and time
you may even encounter a wild giant panda in Beijing
(the picture shows the Lazararu wetland spotted goose; Head geese can fly over Everest, called the world's crown, from Hulun Buir to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are distributed; photographer @ Li Heng)

Three natural zoning, diverse terrain
and rich biological resources
This is the embryonic form of China
and the larger scale of the landscape
will be living on this piece of land by human completion
As the famous geographer George (George Cressey) said
( "The

most important factor in the Chinese landscape is not the soil, the plant or the climate, but the people"


4-6 million years ago
our ancestors
Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens)
came to this land
a full of strength and wisdom of the development
is about to kick off
(the picture shows the late Homo sapiens Guangxi Longlin cave recovery, by the digital artist Baba Novac0232 production, may cause some readers discomfort, please carefully read; according to Fudan University School of Life Sciences Professor Li Hui point of view, there are two batches of Homo sapiens were admitted to China, the second batch of Homo sapiens arrived later, may 2-3 Million years from the western Yunnan into, and then divided into two, one in the 16,000 years ago along the Pearl River into Guangdong and Guangxi, the other along the Yangtze River into Sichuan, Huguang; but there are quite a number of scholars believe that the Chinese people from the earlier indigenous ancient humans Continuous evolution)

They clean up the wild, cut down the virgin forest
they are everywhere to expand, trying to tame the rivers and rivers
they want to become the fertile soil of the master
must learn to survive in the wild
win over the wolf panther, and beat the same competitor
The key to success is to
master the resources

1 million years ago the
middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the Pearl River Basin land
covered with large tracts of forest marshes
The ancients will master the first important resources of
wild rice
will grow during
(the specific time for the origin of rice is still controversial; the picture below Hangzhou Xixi wetland , Is one of the few wetland landscapes in the south, the photographer @ Pan Jin grass)

Some of the ancients first noticed the specialities of the herbaceous plants.
After the floods of the monsoon had retreated,
the seeds of the rice were sown to the remaining mudflats for
a month to be sprouted for a
few months. Full
(Hangzhou Fuyang harvest of rice fields, photographers @ Pan Jin grass)

Although we do not know his name
but there is no doubt that
he was the first farmer in the Chinese history
more people began to follow his innovations
China's first man-made landscape large area of land of the first occurrence of
rice fields
a few years after it Will be all over the southern China
(the Pearl River Valley of Guilin rice; mountain radial effect, is due to panoramic splicing, the picture from @AirPano)

Unlike the rainy southern, the
northern climate is relatively dry and
low grass is the main landscape here
along with the scattered trees along the river
makes the ancient times the north looks more like a savanna
(similar to the savanna landscape, Taken in Xinjiang Nalati grassland, only as a reference; photographer @ Li Heng)

There is no wild rice growth
but there is another kind of plant
jac (which includes millet and millet shǔ)
they can also self-pollinated pollen
is also very easy to hybridize with other varieties of
these characteristics so that it has a very strong adaptability to different environments
The distribution of wild sow is wider than that of rice, and it is
possible to cross the north

and south of China with almost the origin of rice in the south. At the same time,
our ancestors in the north have also successfully domesticated the
fields of millet planted
and are the most important in the north for thousands of years Of the source of food
(on the origin of the specific time is still controversial; the picture shows the Henan Xinyang farmland, photographer @ Jiao Xiaoxiang)

There are two kinds of agricultural patterns on the land of the North Rice North China.
No matter how these two models compete in the future,
they bring another brand new landscape
In order to take care of the crops on the fields
Farmers settle down
and live in the neighborhood Together form the village
(Yunnan Luoping County village and the field, the picture from @DigitalGlobe)

In the summer of 2000, the
Chinese village in the summer of 2000 may have reached 1000
the population living in the Eastern Han Dynasty has 60 million
villages and farmland together to
become the most important landscape of China
(the village of Danzhuang in Guizhou Province and the terraced fields, Yao Chaohui)

The village population continues to grow
and evolved into the
(the city is not the gradual evolution of the formation of the village, but there are many ways; the picture shows the ancient city of Sichuan Langzhong, photographer @ Jiang Xi)

From the ancient times to the 17th century,
China built a total of 4478 cities and towns,
although through the war, demolition, burning
still a small number of ancient city preserved
as a rare thing in modern China
(wide alley, was built in the Qing Dynasty, Chengdu is rare Ancient city remains; photo taken in January 2016, photographer @ Ye Qing)

These ancient cities
from the beginning to establish a good interaction with the village and the
city ​​residents of the feces will be collected by the people at night
and sent to the village, and then by the farmers into the field
people call it "nocturnal"
on the one hand it reduced pollution of the city, the river
on the other hand has also been farmland nutrient supply
and in return
those villages with adequate fertilizer
to provide the number of cities will be richer, better quality agricultural products
(from ancient farmland near the city often higher yields, farmers But also more affluent, which has a great relationship with the night soil; the picture shows the ancient city of Hunan Phoenix, such as water and built the city, if not properly handled, will soon be seriously polluted; photographer @ Xue Haiyang)

China's ancient cities, especially the large-scale known in
addition to the well-known Changan, Luoyang, Bianliang and other super-city
1500 BC Zhengzhou Erligang site
wall circumference up to 7 km
is the Beijing Ming and Qing dynasties twice the
city ​​area of ​​25 square one thousand meters
up to up to 10 million people live
like this surprisingly large cities
in Chinese history could go on
(controversial demographic data, data from the Department, "China environmental history")

village, large scale production of the city
led the Chinese people The frenzy of wood
This is another very important resource
Wooden frame construction In ancient China, it is convenient and the construction is quickly
supplemented by brick, stone and other materials
can become a living, leisure, the gift of a
large number of forests were cut and
replaced Appear on the surface of China is the
mix of wooden structure
(Beijing Lama Temple, due to panoramic splicing, the edge of the building has a tensile deformation, the picture from @ AirPano)

From the ordinary residential
(Sichuan Longchang Genting Walled, photographer @ Li Heng)

To the emperor's altar
(the central prayer hall by the 28 gold Phoebe pillow support; from this aerial map can also be seen on the Tiantan Tianyuan place the overall design; due to panoramic splicing, the screen around the trees have tensile deformation, pictures From @AirPano)

Including those exquisite small pavilions
(Chaozhou West Lake Lake Pavilion, photographer @ Chen Chong)

Sand-based material and even Tulou
therein remains civil, brick mixture
(Longyan Yongding Chaintech floor, the whole floor, a combination of 4 concentric annular ring made of construction, civil engineering structures of the outer ring, a second, tricyclo For the brick and wood structure, the fourth ring for the ancestral hall, by the ring down, patchwork, is the largest ring number, the largest Hakka round earthen, heyday lived more than 800 people; photographer @ in the distance of Allen)

China's ancient people like to be a
variety of single wood frame building together to
form the most significant feature of ancient Chinese architecture
spectacular buildings
(the Summer Palace, due to panoramic splicing, the surrounding buildings have tensile deformation, the picture from @ AirPano)

The capital is the
Beijing Palace Museum
more than 980 different functions of the house, housing
together constitute the
covers an area of ​​725,000 square meters of super buildings
(the Forbidden City, the picture from @ Benjamin Grant)


Rice, jeji, wood and so on the resources
we have brought a new landscape has been very amazing
and they add up to the energy of another resource
that "people"
since the human class has a
"people" for the "ruler"
Are the same available resources as timber
China will be the leader in this area

2238 years ago the
emperor unified six countries the
world's most powerful centralized system was born
China's rulers will be
easier than any other country to mobilize huge Manpower
rulers siege the magnificent city of
Confucianism with the unity of the national idea of ​​the
continuous start of those unprecedented super-project,
including the use of tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of people to build large-scale water conservancy project
(China is a preference for large water conservancy projects in the country, from the famous Zhengguo, Dujiangyan To the modern Three Gorges, the South-North Water Diversion, the number of very much; the picture shows the Yunnan Xiluodu Hydropower Station, the picture from @ DigitalGlobe)

Use 300,000 people to build the Great Wall
("300,000" only for the Qin Dynasty, if you count the history of the number of labor, will be far more than this number; the picture below the Great Wall, the picture from @DigitalGlobe)

The use of 700,000 people to build the emperor mausoleum
("700,000 people" for the "Historical Records" contained in the construction of the Qin Shi Huang mausoleum of the labor, dynasty royal mausoleum construction of different numbers, but most are large; even in Chinese history is often overlooked Xixia , The king of the mausoleum is also amazing, the total area of ​​up to 50 square kilometers, is China's largest existing scale, the site remains the most complete one of the imperial cemetery; photographer @ Liu Su Pei)

The use of more manpower to build the road to reach the country
(the Qin Dynasty began to use the national power of large-scale road construction, road wide, and even roadside trees; Han from Changan radiation outside the "national road" to seven, the national total mileage 30,000 km, along the way also set up a number of posthouses, posters, markets, barracks, to ensure smooth road, in short, the ancient road system is not a weaker project than the Great Wall; we are familiar with the national express " Known as the lychee to ", it is the Tang Dynasty road system developed proof; the picture shows the Xinjiang Gongnai Si grassland and highway, photographer @ knife brother)

The construction of the canal
(the Sui Dynasty Grand Canal building up to 100 million -500 million; the picture shows the Guangzhou Liede Chung, the local people here have held the tradition of dragon boat race; photographer @ Chen Chong)

Overall, the
centralization of China has brought a long-term relatively stable environment of the
population began to increase dramatically
historical geographer Ge Jianxiong that the
Chinese Song Dynasty, the Chinese population has exceeded 100 million

more high quality rice varieties were introduced to China (such as urban rice)
large-scale Smelting iron farm tools
so that people can more easily cut down the forest, clean up the wasteland
coupled with the ancient rulers are vigorously promoting the expansion of agricultural
rice growing area
(Hangzhou gossip Tian, ​​the Southern Song Dynasty when the Emperor, the emperor each year Will be in this spring plowing to encourage farmers mulberry; photographer @ wish Jiaqi)

Almost the whole of the south has been reclaimed into rice fields
where it is not easy to cultivate the
"terraces" this highly innovative innovation breakthrough
(Yuanyang terraces, pictures from @ Diigital Globe)

The corn
in the north lost its glorious position in this agricultural revolution. The
alien species became the most important crop of wheat
. The corn, sweet potato and potatoes were
also popular from the Americas
(the corn on the Yellow River in Jinan, the photographer Xin)

Alien species in China's land to shape the landscape
until today is still shocking
(Xinjiang Yanqi County, hot pepper scene, photographer @ Wang Wei)

Such as lavender, rape, while the highly ornamental value of the crop
is to become the rush of the popular
(the two crops are introduced after the founding of new China; the first one for the Xinjiang Yili lavender flower field, photographer @ Jiao Xiaoxiang; Zhang Yimen source rape field, photographer @ Liu Chen)

The growth of animal husbandry is also impressive
As early as the Shang Dynasty on the oracle bones to record the sacrifice ceremony on the use of cattle
10 times 9 times, 300 there are 3 times, 500 there are 1 and
even up to 1000 Head
other animals such as pigs, sheep have long been into the ancient Chinese daily diet
(Tibet Shannan sheep lake, sheep, photographer @ Long Lang)

In addition to the powerful centralized
religion on the mobilization of human resources can not be underestimated
people chisel mountain stone, the construction of the Buddha
(Leshan Buddha; photographer @ Li Heng)

China's eastern almost all mountains and rivers
regardless of the top of the mountain 1000 meters above sea level, 2000 meters, or 3000 meters
are widely temple monastery
(Emei Shan Shek, more than 3000 meters above sea level, photographer @ Jiang Xi)

In the alpine Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
religious buildings, the impact of religious activities on the surface landscape is more significant
(Tibet Shannan area Sangye Temple, is the history of Tibet, the first monk monk monk monk, was built in the 8th century; @ Wang Lu)

The believers were completely spontaneous to build their own homes
up to tens of thousands of red houses
formed a very shocking scene
(the color of the Raflung Wuming Buddhist College, after the founding of new China, photographer @ in the distance of Allen)

From afar, the Western missionaries were equally devout
in the 100 years after the Opium War,
all kinds of churches quickly spread all over China's urban and rural areas
(Guangzhou Shishi Sacred Heart Cathedral; photographer @ Chen Chong)


175 years ago the
colonists knocked on the door of China's
modern industry, commercial wide spread
(Shanghai Bund, the middle of the picture for the Bund 12, is a landmark in modern China; due to panoramic splicing, the surrounding buildings have tensile deformation, Image from @AirPano)

Plus a
39 years ago,
an open curtain slowly opened a
new modern technology, more free markets
and deep-rooted centralization of the great mobilization of manpower
Although the history of Chinese civilization is only a short moment
is the formation of Chinese artificial landscape The most critical of the times
we mining mining
(Inner Mongolia Baiyunebo iron ore mining area on the surface of the scar, the picture from @ Google Earth)

Set up factories
(Shanghai Wujing Chemical, photographer @ Jiang Lingxiang)

The establishment of the terminal
to the global output products
(Shanghai port, the annual handling of 776 million tons of goods, equivalent to 1.7 times the total human mass of the earth; picture from @DigitalGlobe)

We run the land to
build mechanized farmland
(Heilongjiang farmland; picture from @DigitalGlobe)

And constantly open up new sites
(under construction in Qingdao Haitian Center, white part of the tower crane, photographer @ Meng Tao)

All kinds of new buildings going
(Raffles City Hangzhou, photographer @ Jiang Lingxiang)

(Jinan Provincial Grand Theater; photographer @ Zhao Xin)

Art Center
(Henan Arts Center; Photographer @ Jiao Xiaoxiang)

Office building
(Beijing Galaxy SOHO, due to panoramic splicing, the picture around the building with tensile deformation, the picture from @AirPano)

Memorial Hall
(Li Shutong Memorial Hall; Photographer @ B)

(Taiwan Yilan County Lanyang Museum, photographer @ JasonLau)

(Zhengzhou maritime stadium; photographer @ coke Xiaoxiang)

As well as residential buildings
(or two) are residential buildings in Guangzhou, photographers @ NK7)

The final combination for a super city
(Hong Kong, due to panoramic splicing, the picture around the building with tensile deformation, picture from @AirPano)

We operate the oceans
on the sea and wind turbines
(wind farms on the East Sea near Shanghai, pictures from @DigitalGlobe)

Leaving a dense channel
(Shandong Peninsula along the route, the ship left by a Road yellow line, the picture from @ NASA)

Development of a new island
(Nanhaizhu Bi reef construction satellite map, shot in June 2015; picture from @DigitalGlobe)

We build high-speed rail
(Zhengzhou car section, arrows on the string; photographer @ coke Xiaoxiang)

The road accessible to the Quartet
(Jinan Erhuan West Road Interchange, photographer @ Zhao Xin)

Across the ocean
(Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, photographer @ Meng Tao)

Through the desert Gobi
(Qaidam Basin Highway, photographer @ knife brother)

Set up the king of the car (Chongqing Changan Automobile Factory, photographer @ NK7)

This is the Chinese
wake up the sleeping mountain
so that the river changed the appearance
of this ancient land
everywhere have the power of youth
(the above statement from the song "my country"; the picture below the Tianshan snow melt the formation of rivers, photographers @ Zhao laiqing)

So the
world is no Chinese
is the Chinese people to create China

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