First, emerald history and culture and development
Emerald began in the middle of the Yuan Dynasty. The first Chinese documentary was Xu Xiake's Travels at the end of the Yuan Dynasty. Xu Xiake came to Teng-Yue and witnessed the beautiful natural environment of Tengkuo and the volcano geothermal geological formations. The transaction status of the Yue Vietnam and records and Xu Xiake travel, reception Xu Xiake is the town of Qiluo Teng Yue "Li Hu change," the old house under the Qiluo still alive, but this is not the past, had lamented the years Mark of.
At the turn of the Ming and early Qing dynasties, Teng Yue Guan became an important gateway to the "South Silk Road." Its economic and trade position was extremely superior. In addition, the main producing areas of Emerald - Meng Arch, Puguang and North Burma, Began to pass from Vietnam to Vietnam at that time, but at that time the town of Teng-Yue (now Heshun Ancient Town) was the only gateway into the jadeite, that is, the only cis-jade distribution center in the country, when the caravan here from Myeong-Nepalean overturns camels and camels To the original stone, and in Teng Chong lotus flower processing, after entering the country, we can see the then Heshun Jade Trade how developed.
In the Qing Emperor Qianlong years, the Burmese king began to tribute to the throne with the best emerald court, loved by the royal family, dignitaries like the officials, especially the Qianlong period is a great development, the national popularity is in the Empress Dowager Cixi, but only focus on Royal upper class society, ordinary people can not have such a beautiful jade, it is called "Royal Jade." During the Qing dynasty and the Guangxu years and the late Qing Dynasty, emerald began to enter China in a large amount. At that time, many emerald rich merchants and the largest two Heshun merchants appeared in Heshun County. Ingenuity and Zhang Baoting were called "emerald king" and emerald trade was even more In full swing, a flourishing sky.
During the Republic of China until the reform and opening up, due to the current situation instability, the development of jade entered a low ebb period, emerald design and carving relatively rough, only the VIP can enjoy. Emerald in China was a big blow, then turned to Southeast Asia and India, and Europe, and the distribution center of emerald also moved to Chiang Mai, Thailand. Until the reform and opening up, the emerald market began a steady supply of domestic ordinary people can also buy a small amount of money to good jade jewelry, but the market also appeared a lot of B, C, D goods, the market order is not stable.
As Ruili is close to Chiang Mai and Chiang Mai becomes the most important emerald distribution center except Tengchong, the most important jadeite, semi-finished and finished products in China are concentrated in Tengchong and Ruili. The emerald status of the two border trade cities is very important .
Due to the reduction of resources, the situation in Burma and the sharp rise in prices make it difficult for the general public to consume emeralds in the gemstone sense. Emerald will really become the emerald of the rich. High-color simple works, artistic strong, unique design style products to become the direction of the market chase.
I think so, Tengchong as a very good reputation of a tourist city, the government and the business sector, such as its very standardized market management, emerald trading order is also very standardized, and with its far-reaching history and culture of jade trade, created Tengchong now, Heshun emerald trading market is very safe. And Ruili I always think it is a place for insider trading, layman bullying, and Ruili Myanmar is very large, I dealt with the Burmese several times, twice they were pitched, so I never recommend Ruili buy goods, unless you are an expert.
Second, emerald factory mouth and bet stone
As shown below: Burmese Dachang area emerald ore factory population distribution map. The main producing area fog Lu River basin only two hundred kilometers away from Tengchong, which also laid Tengchong in the domestic and international jade market status.
"Factory port" is the mining area of Jade Mine. Each mining area has a different name and is often named after a place name. The more famous ones are Muxisha Port, Moxisha Factory Port, Longken Factory Port, Factory mouth "," Da Ma Kan factory mouth "," Mau plant "and so on, each factory produced Jade each have their own characteristics, such as: wooden factory mouth is the old factory mouth, easy to full color height Ice material, drifting piecemeal snowflake, that is dotted cotton; Moxisha factory mouth, more delicate texture of glass species, the old pick high, easy to play fluorescent, less white cotton; "In Burmese it is full of green. In the 90s, jade was all green, with different green colors and shades of color. Some had black dots, short heads and opaque textures. Most of the textures were very coarse and delicate . And so on, each plant its mouth different characteristics, a simple chat so, there is a preliminary understanding of the factory.
As shown below: Matsushika Matsushi mouth material, glass with point-like cotton, the kind of old fluorescence is very good, but also a typical representative Mukou Mouth.
As shown below: Moxi Sha factory material, more colorless glass, cotton desalination, kind of old and light.
Simple talk about Mina and factory mouth
Matsushita Matsushita as an example, talk about its performance characteristics
"Wood that" is only in recent years in China people have been gradually recognized and enthusiastically sought to become a higher grade on the market of species, jade market in recent years upstart.
Mudana is one of the most important and well-known sites in the Parish area. Due to the long extraction time and low reserves, the output is relatively low. The venue is famous for its rich color and rich colors. Jade contains more obvious dotted cotton, there are emperors green, green, boxwood green, ever green blue glass, and occasionally a good head green seedling. Cracks are relatively small, species changes are larger, from beans to glass species are to beans, waxy beans and waxy varieties mainly from the more coarse to delicate jade have quality. Jade exquisite, with "oily", kind of good at the end, less problems, usually with white or floating green, ice and glass of green is extremely scarce green, it is gambling, especially "Monte Carlo" , The risk is relatively large.
Factories mouth is in fact a concept of special concern insiders, the line has a motto, "I do not know the factory, every bet will lose," is that if you do not know this Meng Tou materials factory mouth, if you rush to gamble stone , Then it will certainly be lost betting, we can see the factory for bet stone is important. It is an alien thing for ordinary emerald shoppers, but it does not matter. We do not need to study such advanced techniques. We only need to care about his species, water, color and carving. Emerald stress eye, eye to the money, you can start to buy.
Third, through the jade species, water, color, workmanship to distinguish its quality
The above stage, gambling stone is a matter insiders stress, generally we only need to study his foundation, species, water, color four elements.
1, the foundation of jade
It is the sum of all the materials that remove the green accident. The foundation is the combination of jadeite texture, transparency (water), luster, clarity and light color. The structure of the base should be delicate, the color should be uniform, less dirty impurities, there is a certain degree of transparency, look after each other can only say good foundation. A good foundation from high to low called the glass bottom, ice, waxy bottom, egg white at the end, bad foundation called stone bottom, lime bottom.
Simple to say a few often encounter the foundation:
a, glass, bright and transparent as glass, jade is the high-end varieties;
b, ice bottom, crystal clear, crystal clear, giving a feeling of ice and jade is grade foundation products;
C, bottom of waxy, more transparent, colored rice if the same foundation, shiny, mid-range product base;
D, hibiscus bottom, jade smaller, more transparent, but see grainy interface;
e, clear water at the end of the blue water, more transparent, slightly greenish green, blue-green; these two
substrates easy to clear head, depending on its cleanliness; f, dry green bottom, opaque, coarse stone, rough texture;
The picture below: Glass full color bracelet, very noble and generous
2, jade species
Emerald species of a particular texture of emeralds, depending on the emerald color, texture, transparency, structure, cracks and size and other aspects of the quality characteristics.
a, glass species
Under normal circumstances, the glass species are from the old pit, line said "old pit glass." Jade material texture of pure, delicate, no crack cotton pattern, percussion Tsui body sound crisp. If there is no color, called "white glass", fluorescent effect is very good. If the color, called "colored glass" to see the color of the rich, pure degree, but also points high and low, if the color is thick Cui Yan eye-catching, color is not evil, Hye Sung eyesight, uniform color harmony, known as " Glass, "is the best of the best, very rare.
b, ice kind of
transparent, glass luster, somewhat less than the glass to come to some, jade body appearance looks like ice crystals, fine texture with impurities; ice jade in the best quality, transparency, said the highest "high ice" species; Ice also looks pure and transparent quality, in the glass of different is that he is only three points warm, but there are seven cold; colorless ice called "white ice," a flocculent, filamentous, ribbon-shaped color Ice called "flower ice", with a hint of color called "water ice", with a full green called "color ice."
The picture below: High ice green bean, color youthful, free and easy.
The figure below: ice green flowers Royal bracelet, ice light,
The following picture: Old pit ice floats green flower, ice and transparent, from a good light
c, waxy species
is another kind of species after glass and ice species, characterized by a slightly lower transparency than the ice, gives the impression that like the cloudy glutinous rice soup, are translucent. Can be subdivided into waxy ice and glutinous rice species. Wenrun texture, the surface has a softer glass luster. Most of its finished products are found in bracelets or small pendants and cards, the market has a variety of waxy waxy, floating blue waxy, floating green waxy and so on.
d, white background green
white general green for the new pit produced, thick texture, with fibrous and granular mosaic structure, white as the foundation, the green like "cloud" like floating, clouds into a group, into pieces
into pieces or Into the island-like, just floating on the white background, the color between the white and green clear, the lack of harmony. Most of the white-blue distribution of spots, delicate texture but not gentle, the naked eye can still identify the crystal outline, the overall opaque, partially transparent. Due to its medium texture, the lack of a thick three-dimensional color, generally not deliberately carved, the overall price is not high,
d, oil green seed
oil jade jadeite refers to a darker color, the color was impure green, giving a mixed with the feeling of gray, blue, also light green, dark green, the texture is oil-immersed feel. Emerald oil species of high transparency, delicate texture, the lack of freshness of its green, brightness and purity, some with black spots in the green. Usually oil kind of jade bracelets, flowers and a variety of mid-range ring, because of its low prices, but also with a dark green, combined with transparency and gloss are good, in the eighties and nineties of the last century Middle-aged consumers favor
and green species Emerald color is rich and pleasing to the eye, pure color is not evil, the disadvantage is poor transparency, sun exposure does not enter, due to its strong color, low transparency, often made of accessories, are low-grade emerald.
f, violets species of
violet Emerald is a purple emerald, is a special breed, insiders will call it "spring" or "spring." In practice, often only "spring" is divided into purple spring and red spring, red spring price is high, slightly lower purple spring. Violet Emerald elegant color, warm, with its production of jewelry though not high-end Need, but very popular with consumers.
Emerald emerald green is too rich, so was black paint luster, dark as ink, texture and smooth but lovely. It looks black on the surface, and the darker the ink is, the darker the ink is, but his color is not black, but green, which is rendered green under good quality glare. The texture is also good and bad, in general, the more delicate texture the higher the quality, the corresponding transparency is higher. Dark ink texture is relatively rough, the naked eye can see the internal particles, almost no transparency.
3, jade color
Among all the natural jade in nature, the color of jadeite is the most colorful. Emerald color is divided into red, yellow, green, purple, cyan, white, black, colorless and combined colors.
a, Red Fei Fei
is infiltrated by the iron element and to the red, its poor transparency, lack of head, larger coarse particles, belonging to low-grade emerald. If the color is bright red, oh transparency is better, the texture of the natural red Fei water is very rare, and therefore has a high value.
b, Huang Fei
its texture is generally loose, transparency will not be high,
is the most colorful jade color of the most important value, only the green emerald habit is called "Tsui."
In accordance with the degree of green thick Yan are divided into: brilliant green (empennage), Yang green, light green, shallow green.
Purple Jewelry in the jade appear in a high probability, most of the rough texture, a lot of purple emerald a large number of cotton-like white inclusions scattered random distribution of purple emerald above. Purple elegant elegant, light purple light and beautiful. Purple emerald common on the market according to the color saturation can be divided into five kinds: Royal Purple, purple, purple blue, violet, pink purple. One of the most common purple blue.
relatively pale blue color, common oil cyan, cyan, light cyan and so on.
h, multicolor emerald
Emerald color richness is that no other jade can be compared with its, if the same piece of jade appeared in different colors, a variety of colors against each other to form a colorful picture of Bao Yu. Of all the jade varieties, it is very rare to have more than three colors on the same gem
Four, jade A, B, C goods distinction
In the jade line Heshun, you almost can not find B, C goods, a transit has a long history of jade, the concept of integrity management has subtly to the business management of the business, the operating order is very good; two market regulation Very place, Tengchong Heshun as a historical and cultural city, a key tourist city, the trading center of emerald, its government, business and other functional departments of the jade market is very strict supervision, which also put an end to the existence of external forces and B, C goods and circulation; three The circulation is not as big as Ruili, the concentration of Burmese is not as concentrated as Ruili, but also from the supply crowd to reduce the B, C goods may appear. On the contrary Ruili jade market is really quite a mixed bag, I have always felt that Ruili is a place for traders transactions, foreign firms.
1, natural A cargo
Refers to the pure natural jade ore, without filling and color and other chemical treatment; after filling treatment called B goods, the first with strong acid and alkali side while heating soak, the head is poor or the texture is not clean Flaw clean, and then add polymer; C goods refers to dyed emerald, dyed most of these people like green; such as the presence of filling and color processing called B + C goods; colorless jade Placed on the green film is called D goods, often appear in the ring surface;
2, how to identify A, B, C goods?
Traditional fire, burning hair, etc., these are not reliable, say that the business will let you take a lighter to burn it? Or talk about some fly way.
a, gloss , natural emerald glitter, natural reflective shiny luster, B, C goods pickling and filling due to glial, making emerald surface gloss gloomy, black hair.
b, to see the color : natural emerald color along the texture direction of the distribution, the colored part and the colorless part into a natural transition, the color has a head and tail, and the color appears to grow from its fibrous tissue or granular crystal (Commonly known as colored roots), calm and not empty. The B, C goods color pickling color, the color into a sheet, block, colored parts in the colorless part of the obvious blunt over, the color difference is very obvious, and can not find the color root.
c, acid corrosion pattern . Most of the natural jadeite surface of the "orange peel structure", when the emerald grain or fiber coarse, although the surface of some uneven or sunken plaque, but the sunken surface is smoother, no net Grain structure and filling phenomenon. After pickling B, C goods, carefully observed or observed with a magnifying glass, the surface can be seen more obvious network lines, and rugged.
d, listen to the sound : the two pieces of jade jade hit each other, or jade pieces hit the measured object, if A goods, then issued crisp "steel sound", if it is not A goods, the sound boring, however, listen to sound Just for reference, superb craftsmanship of the B goods, and most of the C goods, in the ordinary people sounds almost no difference between the sound and natural jade.
Fifth, buy emerald
Buy emerald, first of all, or to choose the old shop, so there is a certain quality assurance, and the general old shop every emerald has its own certificate, it is equivalent to its ID card, is a certificate from the national geological , Generally do not have fake. Some people say that the certificate is also fake, in fact, in addition to believe that the old shop, they also have some common sense to identify jade, so that's good.
Followed by the choice of emerald, "first seek its kind of water, after its color," we know that emerald but how it kind of water, as long as it is with Cui color prices will be very high, so, many consumers only buy A little bit of color, I do not know no species of water, how to color it, for example, no matter how good the color into a stone, in fact, not much value, in other words, water better jade color than the cost-effective a lot of. Of course, if the kind of water color has the financial ability to accept, in fact, is the best.
Jade again to buy, be sure to choose during the day, that is, under natural light to see the goods, often at night, the lights of the container according to the deviation of the jade, natural light under the sun to see the degree of reduction of goods is the best. So try not to buy goods at night Oh, personal experience.
Then, the sale is to bargain in the Heshun is no exception, if the price reached your heart expected, it may be closed, after all, emerald is also pay attention to fate.
Emerald prices have been higher, although the domestic situation is not very optimistic, but the trend of high jade market, the reason, with a source of emerald has been reducing, or even depleted have a fundamental relationship between the origin of the world belongs only to Burmese dare Area, but jade is a non-renewable resources, is really less and less;
two with emerald market demand has a great relationship, the domestic market demand is still very strong, middle-aged or even young people love jadeite products have a unique Bell, to have a good jade products and contentment, especially in high-end products is favored by consumers;
Three changes in the situation of political parties in Myanmar, the Democratic League Party began to weaken the forces of local armed forces, a strong control, cut the revenue sources of local military government - Jade Mine, amber, timber, that is to say these rare mine government It is obvious from the June 2016 emerald market in Myanmar that there is almost no high-grade raw ore this year, and the entire number of public markets Less than half of last year, we can see a very reduced market circulation; and so these factors have led directly to the international jade market high, which is the trend of the development of jade market, jade will become the future circulation of wealthy gems.